British West Indies
Here’s another excerpt from Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy’s An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean on White racial attitudes in the British West Indies:
Note: The American Revolution sundered the Deep South (Georgia and South Carolina) from the Deeper South (Jamaica, Barbados, Leeward Islands, Windward Islands).
“Whites in the British West Indies regularly spoke of slaves as the internal or the intestinal enemy. They wrote as a group besieged. Negrophobia was even more pronounced in the islands than in the southern plantation colonies of North America. The writings of white West Indians like Edward Long, Philip Thicknesse, Samuel Estwick, and James Tobin depicted blacks as violent, primitive, untrustworthy, and troublesome. The usually paternalistic language of eighteenth-century elites, which so elegantly disguised the dynamics of class and racial struggle, degenerated into the language of conflict and hatred when talking about blacks.”