Caribbean Project: Review: An Empire Divided

Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy's An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean

British West Indies

Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy’s An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean is an excellent book which sheds considerable light on how Southerners ended up marooned in this Clusterfuck Union.

In 1776, there were 26 – not 13 – British colonies in the Americas. Half of the colonies revolted and won their independence in the American Revolution.

The other 13 colonies remained loyal to King George III and their paths diverged from the United States. The American Revolution altered the course of world history in all kinds of unforeseen ways.

This book is concerned with the American Revolution and its impact on the British West Indies: Jamaica, Barbados, the Leeward Islands (Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat), and the Windward Islands (Dominica, St. Vincent, Grenada, the Grenadines, and Tobago) in the Lesser Antilles.

Prior to the American Revolution, the Lower South and the British West Indies had more in common with each other than either had with New England. South Carolina was founded in 1670 by settlers from Barbados who had spread their culture through the Leeward Islands and Jamaica before arriving on the mainland.

These Barbadians transplanted the domestic institution of negro slavery, the plantation system, the slave code, speech patterns, and their architectural styles to South Carolina from the British West Indies. The culture of South Carolina and the Lower South was just as much an extension of the British West Indies as Rhode Island and Connecticut were extensions of Massachusetts.

Compared to the Southern colonies, the British West Indies were blacker, wealthier, more enslaved, more racialist, more conservative, more authoritarian, more aristocratic, and more loyalist – in almost every way, they represented a more extreme example of what we would recognize as Southern culture.

According to O’Shaughnessy, the sundering of the British West Indies from the Southern mainland colonies in the American Revolution stemmed from two fundamental causes:

(1) First, the British West Indies are in the tropics, whereas South Carolina has a sub-tropical climate. In the Caribbean, malaria and yellow fever decimated the White population and led to demographic failure. In South Carolina, a settler society emerged because the climate was healthier and the infant mortality rate was much lower.

(2) Second, the British West Indies and South Carolina were both slave societies with plantation systems, but the former were sugar colonies whereas the latter was a rice and indigo colony at the outset. Sugar was a more profitable crop. The sugar plantations in the British West Indies were bigger and required more slaves which resulted in a smaller and wealthier oligarchy.

In this way, the same cultural pattern in the British West Indies and the Lower South produced sojourner societies in the Caribbean – White slaveowners resigned to demographic failure owing to tropical disease, lost and alienated in a sea of blackness, and clinging to England as a result – and expansionist settler societies in North America – White slaveowners who were poorer and more fecund cousins, but who stood to gain a lot more from American independence.

West Indian planters were far more likely to be educated in Britain and to be absentees than their North American counterparts. They were less likely to be religious dissenters. They were more dependent on British military protection due to their greater ratio of slaves to Whites and their closer proximity to rival French and Spanish colonies in the Caribbean.

Economically speaking, over 90 percent of the sugar and rum produced in the British West Indies was consumed in Britain. The sugar planters in the British West Indies were unable to compete with their competitors in the French West Indies and owed their fortunes to mercantilist protection within the British Empire.

In 1776, the British West Indies were a prosperous and contented region within the British Empire. They were happy to quarter British troops because of their anxiety over potential slave rebellions. They were happy to have the Royal Navy protecting them from conquest by the French or the Spanish. They were willing to submit to the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts because protectionism within the imperial system worked to their advantage.

New England, however, was on a collision course with Britain:

(1) Yankees resented the Sugar Act and sought to trade with Spanish America and the French West Indies.

(2) Yankees had nothing to fear from the French who had recently ceded Canada to Britain in order to retain Guadeloupe and Martinique.

(3) Yankees saw British troops as a menacing threat to their liberties instead of a potential savior because they lacked a large slave population like Jamaica and the Leeward Islands.

(4) Yankees saw Britain as an obstacle to their commerce and territorial expansion.

When the American Revolution broke out in 1775 at Lexington and Concord, the British West Indies remained loyal to the Empire. After France declared war on Britain in 1778 (and Spain in 1779 and the Netherlands in 1780), the epicenter of the conflict shifted from North America to the Caribbean where the British prioritized the defense of their wealthiest colonies.

In 1778, the British abandoned Philadelphia – the capital of the Patriot cause – in order free five thousand troops to invade the French island of St. Lucia in the Caribbean. General Henry Clinton also dispatched Lord Cornwallis with four thousand troops to defend Jamaica while Admiral D’Estaing sailed to Saint-Domingue to collect more troops for the reconquest of Georgia.

King George III prioritized the defense of Jamaica – the jewel of the British Caribbean, and a major source of British wealth and power – above defense of Britain itself and all the other British colonies. In the course of the war, St. Kitts was invaded by the French, and the Windward Islands (Dominica, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago) were reconquered by France. The escalation of the war between Britain and France in the Caribbean brought about American independence.

American independence severed the British West Indies from the Southern mainland colonies, created the novel concept that Yankees and Southerners shared a common civilization, halved the number of slaves in the British Empire, put the South under the rule of Washington, galvanized the abolitionist movement, and set the British West Indies on the road to long term economic decline.

Prior to the war, the British West Indies had depended on the North American colonies as a market for its rum and as a cheap source for lumber, staves, fresh food and other vital supplies that made slavery profitable. After the war, the American colonies were outside the British mercantilist system, and this created a conflict of interest between West Indian planters and other interest groups vying for influence over Parliament.

As the conflict between the West Indian planters and the abolitionists escalated in the early nineteenth century, West Indian threats of secession and joining the United States as slave states became commonplace. Unfortunately, British naval supremacy in the Caribbean and the ever present threat posed by slave rebellions and Revolutionary France and the growing hostility of the Yankee to slavery in the United States precluded the possibility of reunion.

The damage had been done. The Golden Circle had been broken. The result of the American Revolution was the triumph of abolition in the British West Indies in 1834 and the destruction of the Confederacy by the Union in 1865.

If we could do it over again, would we have made a different choice?

About Hunter Wallace 12367 Articles
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50 Comments

  1. Re: “a heretic hunter by temper”:

    There is such a thing as heresy, always a valid concern. But they were heretical themselves.

  2. White Supremacy is alive and well in the Caribbean. We do just fine in the tropics, thank you, Nathaniel. American Racialists ought consider dual-citizenship in a Caribbean nation. The White ruling families here, ‘get it’. They have houses in the US for a chance to vacation somewhere that’s ‘in order’ but have done amazingly well for themselves down here. There are simply too many resources here both natural and human to allow the fruit of the islands to rot on the vine.

  3. Tamer, how White is the Dominican Republic? Are there any White neighbourhoods in the cities or towns outside of the tourist traps? And what power do the Whites have there now?

  4. If Whites did want to use those places as plan B, what type of money and skills would they need to bring with them?

  5. @Tamer of Savages, wild
    Last week you said you lived in New York City. This week you live in the Caribbean?
    Are you a jet-setter? Or, just of full of sh*t?

  6. Once again slow joe the jew troll you make shit up as Tamer clearly stated he was going there on vacation. What is the deal with jews and their easily refutable lies?

  7. “One day, if we survive the present dark age, we will make amazing space colonists.”- Palmetto, sorry.

    This earth is all we have. There can be no ‘second’ or ‘new’ incarnation of the Son of God, the Messiah of the Adamic race. For, if there were, God would not be the God of the Bible.

    He would be the Mormon polytheist’s concept of God- that ‘god’ is but an elevated man, for one world only.

    The real God, the YHWH the I AM of Scripture is the God of the Universe. We shall never leave this planet, for the end of the age will come before we get that intelligent/proud, and the ‘new heavens and the new EARTH’ (only one) ‘wherein dwelleth righteousness’ shall take its place.

    And only for the Regenerate Adamkind will this earth be ‘re-created’- for the ‘lost sheep of the House of Israel,’ for the ‘His People’ of the Gospel and the Messiah.

    People don’t think through the fact that sci-fi is largely a JEWISH invention after Verne and Heinlein. No WONDER why they think such a scenario could exist- Jews believe much like the Mormons, only they think it is JEWS that shall be as ‘gods’.

    Either way, it’s folly and not Monotheism- not even Unitarian Monotheism.
    Just heresy.

  8. She**t crackers. We could have gone to Mars if your muttha f***cker white sell-out honkey leaders didn’t sign the Federal Reserve Act. She***t. Now everythin be all f**cked up and she**t. My hommie Leroy be tellin me down at the 7/11 hang-out, Leroy be sayin …. what be up with those honkies ? , why they always be selling out ? and damn, that ain’t cool nigga. That be what Leroy say. We could be on Mars by now if the goddamned whiteys had their sh*t together. You know what I be sayin crackers ?

  9. @Fr John
    We’re going to have to run that by Lynda first before we can officially approve your post. May it be we’re all on the same biblical page. Amen.

  10. I need to get a camera tomorrow because my iPhone is on a donkey-cart somewhere in Santo Domingo. I’m using a prepaid Dominican phone on a company called “Orange” at the moment.

    “Tamer, how White is the Dominican Republic? Are there any White neighbourhoods in the cities or towns outside of the tourist traps? And what power do the Whites have there now?”

    The DR could properly be called 10% white in my observance, this doesn’t count tourists. I spent the day in a white stronghold in eastern Santo Domingo. My new friends sent an SUV to the old city and it was about a 20 minute drive in third world traffic. The ratio between the charming family and (Negro) bodyservants was 1:1.

    My trip is centered around Santo Domingo and there aren’t so much white ‘towns’ here as hidden urban enclaves. In the center of the country is the snowcapped Pico Duarte, highest peak in the Caribbean, sometimes temperatures dip below -15C. This region is known as “the alps of the Caribbean”; I will be touring this area next time I’m in country but assume it is a white stronghold. I also believe the Samana peninsula to have good demographics and look forward to investigating this.

    The Whites don’t outright run the country but the country is run for them. All the Whites are in family businesses. Presidente (beer), Brugal(rum)etc. , these are all family names. The situation I am told is more extreme in Haiti where 15 families run the entire country. These families all network and intermarry together. Remember, DR is the country where Cortes and Pizzaro were nextdoor neighbors for a time enroute to their later conquests. The spirit is strong here. The average non-White Dominican is pro-White because the one thing between them and Haiti is New World White culture and people.

    Stonelifter,

    Mining, agriculture and tourism are the big employers here. Manufacturing is just really starting to get off the ground. A lot of expats buy rundown colonial property and turn it into B&B’s or hotels. It really depends on your interests and strong suits. I think Whites with military experience should look to private security companies. The Dominican Republic has thousands of contractors on its payroll.

  11. The non-White Dominicans in New York City hate white Americans. With a passion. Nothing pro-White about the non-white Dominicans in New York City. Not at all.

  12. @Tamed_by_Savage_Dong (on the Islands)

    I think what Stonelifter was really interested in, is if there are any local uteruses for rent.

  13. go back to orally servicing dogs and your dried up harpy Pris 313.

    My plan B is Alaska, in part because I doubt many city fags can hack it in such a severe climate, but anywhere Whites plan to relocate requires and economic recon.

  14. @Stonepacker

    Yes, you’ve already talked about Alaska. Where apparently you plan to join a Russian Orthodox church, even though you’re neither ethnic Russian or Orthodox. But don’t worry about it. I’m sure all your “Ah’s a fahghtin Ulstuh Southruhn” hot air, coupled with your tatted-up child-concubine, and entourage of third-world birthing-vessels will just impress the hell outta those traditional Christians.

  15. Thanks for the info, Tamed. I always enjoy hearing about other regions first hand from those who are visiting or living in other countries.

    Joe is right, DR’s hate Whites in general in NYC. I am sure you know this.
    When SHTF, any non-White nation will turn to another Haiti or S. Africa. The only reason the DR is pro-White in any way is because they leech off the enterprising White population there. When the money dries up, Whites will be attacked in mass. There never has been any love, or ever will be any love/respect for Whites in majority non-White nations. They will turn on you in the blink on an eye as soon as you are no longer useful to them.

  16. i’m surprised you could keep your mouth off your k9 friends long enough to post that pris313. Or are you talented enough to preform fellatio and type?

  17. I have to admit I have always found the quote by Davis about Puritans peculiar. It ranks up there in strangeness for me with Benjamin Franklin describing Swedes as “Swarthy.”

    Davis oddly claims the Puritan’s origin’s lie in the bogs of Ireland where Cromwell gathered them together and then they began disturbing England, then they went to Holland which places the Puritan’s flight to Holland after Oliver Cromwell! Davis seems to be suggesting that Cromwell was the originator of Puritanism.

    If anyone thinks the Puritans were the only ones in England who persecuted Catholics they are quite mistaken most executions of English Catholics did not take place during the 11 years of Puritan rule. A good number were killed toward the end of the reign of Charles II during the Popish plot scare.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Catholic_martyrs_of_the_English_Reformation

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popish_Plot

    Also it is hard to feel too sorry for the four Quakers that were executed by Massachusetts because they were behaving pretty much like modern social activists. These three men and one woman went to Massachusetts specifically because they heard about the law Massachusetts had passed banning Quakers and wanted to challenge it. After being banished from the colony they returned and that’s when they were executed.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_martyrs

    On the witch issue the Southern Colonies come out better than New England because there is no record of witches being executed in the South that I am aware of where there were 30 some witches executed in the history of the New England colonies.

    Europe in general though looks no better than New England.

    http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/witchhistory.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_executed_for_witchcraft

  18. Tamed, I would never consider moving to a majority nigger nation such as the DR, or any latin nation in S. America. Whites in Latin nations identify with their Latin roots, not White European. They do not want Whites without Latin roots in their nations. Vacation is one thing, but living their is another.
    They view them as invaders there to profit, the White Latins don’t want competition. They may be cordial to your face, but this is only a front. If you don’t offer some benefit to them, they want you out. (I have no problem with this attitude)
    Brazil is an excellent example of this, they hate White Americans, toleration is for their benefit, not anything more. I hope you understand this while your on vacation down there. Don’t get yourself into trouble trusting your “new friends” down in the brown nation.

  19. @Stonestraddler

    Save your flirtations for Tamed_by_Dominicans, you steroid-popping degenerate. I’m not into what you’re evidently into. And I don’t have a dog, my last one died 10 years ago.

  20. “My plan B is Alaska, in part because I doubt many city fags can hack it in such a severe climate, but anywhere Whites plan to relocate requires and economic recon.”

    Dude… Lots of damnyakees in AK. Seriously. It’s like Minnesota with more wolves.

  21. “Northern European Protestants should have left the tropics strictly alone. We were born out of the frozen North and are completely unsuited to anything beyond sub-tropical at best.”

    All that sun make’s YT coo-coo. Vitamin D overdose perhaps? How else do you explain California?

    Seriously though. It’s always winter in the heart of a white man. Cold has a way of purifying the mind. Though it does tend to rot the liver. Hehe.

  22. pris 313 fellatio-ed that poor dog to death. What a shame. If you notice pris ( and the harpy etc) I don’t directly respond to your posts until you find it necessary to stir my kool-aide. What defect is that in the yankee soul? Born liars everyone of them too, just like its attempt to say my current children were from rented wombs when I already said they were from my ex. Vile creatures. Well I will have to say not all of them. Just the city breed are the born liars and shit stirrers. Clearly Mosin and few others have no such thing and have been good debaters but the slicks….

    Interesting Jim. I’ve made some good contacts already and was told there were a lot of Southron folk up there, I enjoy the people, lifestyle etc if we can deal with the winter. Folks in the church put my son up when he recon’ed the AO. Men in the church have offered to show us how to hunt and fish there….Regardless I’ll find out 1st hand this spring. I’ll settle farther South in Alaska if I do decide to keep a permanent place there. Much farther. In many ways it seems like the ideal Plan B for my family, but who can tell until you get there and live for awhile? I’d be greatful for any intell/ insights you have

    Also I have to agree with Sean about going to South America. I’ve not been there in a long time, but what Sean wrote matches my experience. Not to mention the crime and political instability. Firearm laws mean a lot to me, and… they can be tricky down there. Factor in the daily corruption you have to deal with…. I had to bribe govt off workers do do their job on the regular. Not big bribes, gifts men could take home to their wife/ mother/ family, makeup for the ladies etc.

  23. I’m going to Tahoe this weekend. Lake Tahoe, California. The most beautiful Alpine Lake in the World. Google it.

  24. How about pioneer produce farming with the Danish in Greenland, Stonelifter? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUKvq1ynz9Y Unfortunately no peaches there, but early hardy apple varieties.

    VERY long days in summer, good for high tunnels, and almost none of the agricultural pests and diseases that we have in America. As in Alaska, the southern coastline is really not very cold in winter. Ruins of the Viking farms of the middle ages are everywhere. Viking land could be farmed again.

  25. Maybe we should Deport & Export all the whites in America who are still dreaming of a Golden Circle Slave Empire to Ghana, Gabon, Cameroon, The Congo : Places like that. Ship the slave-loving whites to Angola. Problem solved. No more problem. As per [ Fr John +] one can buy a slave in Africa for 50 bucks. Ship all the slave-loving whites to Africa. This way they’ll have their slaves.
    Ipso facto, the rest of us Normal Whites who are capable of doing our own work, qua capable and intelligent human beings, could then live in peace and quiet. Maybe even have some intelligent discussions on how to proceed into the Future ; You know — well some don’t — like talking about building a viable and sustainable life here in America for ourselves, our children, and our progeny ; Instead of devolving into putrud* atavistic* daydreams of the talmudic* horrrors of slavery: Of chains, and whips, and punishments, and beatings, and hunger, never-ending hatred and animosity ; Of ignorance, benightedness, illiteracy ; Immortalized indebtedness, arrearage, and obligement and servititude of various degrees for the overwhelming majority of the population ; A slave system inherently leaves out the majority of Whites from a viable and decent life. There’s to be no true ebullience of The Intellect, only the abridgement of knowledge, the attenuation of understanding and empathy, and the resultant enfeeblement of The Spirit.
    Slavery, I dare say, was greatly immoral against the black race. Slavery, I do also dare say, was greatly immoral against the White race as well [ I will expand on this in a future post].
    All this suffering for a handful of people who love themselves so much they think God actually created them so they could throw whomever they please into slavery and misery, into bondage even unto the yoke ; It’s disgusting : That it’s Disgusting is Beyond Cavil.
    * putrid, *atavistic,* talmudic : redundancy :
    http://www.whale.to/a/protocols_h.html

  26. Joe,

    White men invented trains, planes, cars, engines etc etc to do the work of slaves and serfs. Almost all of these things were pioneered by “crackers” or relations of “crackers”.
    Everyone else is just along for the ride. You are just guests.

  27. The factory itself was born in Jamaica on the sugar plantations. Probably no industrial revolution without the sugar trade. The entirity of mankind would still be serf or villein
    without the exploitation of the Carribean by commercial plantations. Haiti itself was worth more than the mainland of north america combined. Blavk marxists like CLR James were quite correct to point out the massive role played by Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba in creating modernity. Except he didn’t realize that blacks were useless once everything was automated.

  28. Can we please raise the level of discourse here a bit, gentlemen? All these name-games are silly and make me miss the old dignified posters like Matt Parrot and even Fred Scrooby.

    The White families here are multicultural and mobile. Hungarian mixed with English, Swiss and white Mexican, German-Canadian, etc…
    Spanish, then English and to a much lesser but still notable extent, Switzerdeutsch are alternated in use among Whites. Most are dual-citizens of America or Canada, many have shed Catholocism. Whites here like merengue (hate Bachata) but prefer American music and much to my chagrin, “smooth jazz”. The Dominican Republic has a long history of pro-white immigration policies and there simply is no resentment against other New World Whites; I feel as comfortable here as I do in Montreal.

  29. Can we please raise the level of discourse here a bit, gentlemen? All these name-games are silly and make me miss the old dignified posters like Matt Parrot and even Fred Scrooby.

    The White families here are multicultural and mobile. Hungarian mixed with English, Swiss and white Mexican, German-Canadian, etc…
    Spanish, then English and to a much lesser but still notable extent, Switzerdeutsch are alternated in use among Whites. Most are dual-citizens of America or Canada, many have shed Catholocism. Whites here like merengue (hate Bachata) but prefer American music and much to my chagrin, “smooth jazz”. The Dominican Republic has a long history of pro-white immigration policies and there simply is no resentment against other New World Whites; I feel as comfortable here as I do in Montreal.

  30. Tamer: What about New York City? Don’t ever forget your hometown heritage. It’s your hometown, after all. That’s what you said. I hope you’re still rooting for The Yankees.

  31. Montreal is really nice. One thing I liked was a the lovely looking French birds at the airport. Nice way to start a visit. Beats the shit out of the ugly sows at US airports.

  32. @John
    There’s absolutely nothing in my post to imply white men didn’t invent all the things you mention, and more for that matter. Go back to kindergarten and start over again. Don’t they teach English in British schools? You’re in serious need of remedial English lessons.

  33. The White men who invented all the great things everyone loves so much were Non-Slave Owning Whites. Slave-owning whites never invented a goddamned thing.

  34. Slavery leads to an abridgement of knowledge for the White Race. Go back and read my post again @ John. After you find yourself a capable English tutor, if you can find anyone who has the patience for you.

  35. Very few darkies as well. It is, I suspect, what France looked like in the 60s. Except they have Iphones and American cars.

  36. Joe, Jefferson invented a few things. There are others.

    We don’t even need to go into Antiquity to find them. The inventors of antiquity certainly owned slaves. The slave provided the freedom for superiors to dream and tinker.

  37. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml

    James Watt was funded with money from slavers. That’s the engine.

    I used to scoff at the idea the modern world was built on the corpses of slaves. Nowadays I think it’s dishonest to deny that a few nigs hLad to be sacrificed for my comfort and the birth of the modern.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml

    They can’t complain either. They have rims and 5.0’s to drive around because of this terrible evil system that allows them to live lifestyles their bushmen ancestors never dreamt of.

  38. “The factory itself was born in Jamaica on the sugar plantations. Probably no industrial revolution without the sugar trade. ”

    Come on. Now you are being ridiculous. The industrial revolution was due to two things mainly. Replaceable machine parts invented by American arms makers, and the steam engine, developed by English mining engineers.

    I’ve spent my life as a mechanic and engineer, I know the history of machines and slaving had shit to do with it.

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