National Review Lashes Out At “Latter-Day Calhounists”

Jason Lee Steorts has written a lengthy article and a blog post at National Review decrying the rejection of “the Founding vision” by a “virulent challenge from the Right.” This challenge is said to be coming from the “latter-day Calhounists” who are the Alt-Right. This is the first time that “conservatives” have connected the Alt-Right with the Southern Reactionary Enlightenment.

I’m happy to illustrate that such a relationship does exist:

“But when once raised to an equality, they would become the fast political associates of the North, and acting and voting with them on all questions, and by this political union between them, holding the white race at the south in complete subjection. The blacks, and the profligate whites that might unite with them, would become the principal recipients of federal offices and patronage, and would, in consequence, be raised above the whites of the South in the political and social scale. We would, in a word, change conditions with them – a degradation greater than has ever yet fallen to the lot of a free and enlightened people, and one from which we could not escape, should emancipation take place, (which it certainly will if not prevented), but by fleeing the homes of ourselves and our ancestors, and by abandoning our country to our former slaves, to become the permanent abode of disorder, anarchy, poverty, misery and wretchedness.

With such a prospect before us, the gravest and most solemn question that ever claimed the attention of a people is presented for your consideration: what is to be done to prevent it? It is a question belonging to you to decide.”

Calhoun explains that all men are not capable of self government. He says “ours is the government of the White man” and protests against incorporating Mexicans:

“Nor have we ever incorporated into the Union any but the Caucasian race. To incorporate Mexico, would be the first departure of the kind; for more than half of its population are pure Indians, and by far the larger portion of the residue mixed blood. I protest against the incorporation of such a people. Ours is the Government of the white man. …

We make a great mistake in supposing that all people are capable of self government. Acting under that impression, many are anxious to force free Governments on all the people of this continent, and over the world, if they had the power. It has been lately urged in a very respectable quarter, that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the globe, and especially over this continent — even by force, if necessary. It is a sad delusion. None but a people advanced to a high state of moral and intellectual excellence are capable in a civilized condition, of forming and maintaining free Governments; and among those who are so far advanced, very few indeed have had the good fortune to form constitutions capable of endurance. …”

Calhoun attacks Lockean classical liberalism in his Disquisition on Government:

“These great and dangerous errors have their origin in the prevalent opinion that all men are born free and equal;—than which nothing can be more unfounded and false. It rests upon the assumption of a fact, which is contrary to universal observation, in whatever light it may be regarded. It is, indeed, difficult to explain how an opinion so destitute of all sound reason, ever could have been so extensively entertained, unless we regard it as being confounded with another, which has some semblance of truth;—but which, when properly understood, is not less false and dangerous. I refer to the assertion, that all men are equal in the state of nature; meaning, by a state of nature, a state of individuality, supposed to have existed prior to the social and political state; and in which men lived apart and independent of each other. If such a state ever did exist, all men would have been, indeed, free and equal in it; that is, free to do as they pleased, and exempt from the authority or control of others—as, by supposition, it existed anterior to society and government. But such a state is purely hypothetical. It never did, nor can exist; as it is inconsistent with the preservation and perpetuation of the race. It is, therefore, a great misnomer to call it the state of nature. Instead of being the natural state of man, it is, of all conceivable states, the most opposed to his nature—most repugnant to his feelings, and most incompatible with his wants. His natural state is, the social and political—the one for which his Creator made him, and the only one in which he can preserve and protect his race. As, then, there never was such a state as the, so called, state of nature, and never can be, it follows, that men, instead of being born in it, are born in the social and political state; and of course, instead of being born free and equal, are born subject, not only to parental authority, but to the laws and institutions of the country where born and under whose protection they draw their first breath. …”

George Fitzhugh went further than Calhoun and completely rejected classical liberalism in his book, Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society:

“The first principles of the science of political economy inculcate separate, individual action, and are calculated to prevent that association of labor without which nothing great can be achieved; for man isolated and individualized is the most helpless of animals. We think this error of the economists proceeded from their adopting Locke’s theory of the social contract. We believe no heresy in moral science has been more pregnant of mischief than this theory of Locke. It lies at the bottom of all moral speculations, and if false, must infect with falsehood all theories built on it. Some animals are by nature gregarious and associative. Of this class are men, ants and bees. An isolated man is almost as helpless and ridiculous as a bee setting up for himself. Man is born a member of society, and does not form society. Nature, as in the cases of bees and ants, has it ready formed for him. He and society are congenital. Society is the being – he one of the members of that being. He has no rights whatever, as opposed to the interests of society; and that society may very properly make any use of him that will redound to the public good. Whatever rights he has are subordinate to the good of the whole; and he has never ceded rights to it, for he was born its slave, and had no rights to cede.

Government is the creature of society, and may be said to derive its powers from the consent of the governed; but society does not owe its sovereign power to the separate consent, volition or agreement of its members. Like the hive, it is as much the work of nature as the individuals who compose it. Consequences; the very opposite of the doctrine of free trade, result from this doctrine of ours. It makes each society a band of brothers, working for the common good, instead of a bag of cats biting and worrying each other. The competitive system is a system of antagonism and war; ours of peace and fraternity. The first is the system of free society; the other that of slave society. The Greek, the Roman, Judaistic, Egyptian, and all ancient polities, were founded on our theory. The loftiest patrician in those days, valued himself not on selfish, cold individuality, but on being the most devoted servant of society and his country. In ancient times, the individual was considered nothing, the State every thing. And yet, under this system, the noblest individuality was evolved that the world has ever seen.”

There is so much more here.

After 1830, the abolitionists began to systematically indict the Southern social order in the name of anti-slavery. The North was boiling over with dozens of reform movements like Mormonism, Millerism, the temperance movement, free love and women’s suffrage.

In the South, the response was a drift away from Jeffersonianism. Southerners began to reject Enlightenment liberalism in favor of Romantic nationalism. Sir Walter Scott and Thomas Carlyle became very influential. Racial scientists like Josiah Nott and Louis Agassiz popularized polygenism. The result was a sea change in how Southerners thought about race, politics and culture.

As you can see above, there was a moment in the 1850s when Southerners turned against liberal democracy. Calhoun and Fitzhugh dismissed Locke’s State of Nature as an ahistorical falsehood. Like Aristotle, they believed that man is a social and political being who is born into society and subjected to parental authority. The rights of man are rewards to the deserving granted by the state. They denied the existence of human equality and insisted that some races are unfit for liberty.

Alexander Stephens described the Alt-South’s metapolitical revolution in the Cornerstone Speech:

“Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the government built upon it fell when the “storm came and the wind blew.”

Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner- stone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth.

This truth has been slow in the process of its development, like all other truths in the various departments of science. It has been so even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, can recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted, even within their day. The errors of the past generation still clung to many as late as twenty years ago …”

Where could Alexander Stephens have gotten this idea?

“The social, moral, and political, as well as the physical history of the negro race bears strong testimony against them; it furnishes the most undeniable proof of their mental inferiority. In no age or condition has the real negro shown a capacity to throw off the chains of barbarism and brutality that have long bound down the nations of that race; or to rise above the common cloud of darkness that still broods over him.

In no quarter of the globe have the energies of the human mind been so locked up in the dungeon of despair. While in other nations its elastic energies have burst up like heavings of a volcano, sundering all obstacles to its rise, progress, and developments, the barbarous negro nations of Africa have quietly rested in their unalloyed barbarism for thousands of years, exhibiting no more evidence of a capacity for native born advancement than the baboons and ourang-outangs that people the forest …”

152 years later, it might be worth returning to investigate the present condition of Haiti, Jamaica, Liberia, sub-Saharan Africa and the black enclaves of the Northern states which caused antebellum Southerners to formulate this conviction. Maybe we could expand the inquiry to Detroit and New Orleans.

The Alt-South’s goal was to create a Patrician Republic:

“The Southern people, though superior to all other races on this continent, are yet themselves but men, and subject to all the general laws of humanity – it, therefore, appears necessary that human agencies should be used in effecting great changes, howsoever prosper. We have been so long in the enjoyment of the privileges of an almost unqualified liberty, both personal and political, that we would scarcely have consented to their abridgment for any cause. But a curtailment of that liberty, and a more modified form of government, appeared to be necessary to the position which the advances of time demanded us to assume. In short, a stronger government appeared to be necessary – not a monarchy, but a sort of Patrician Republic …

Although the Southern people are by nature superior, in many high points of character, to the Northern, or to any other people on this continent, they are yet, by no means, exempt from the common proclivity of humanity, to relapse into frivolity and corruptions, when circumstances favor the disuse of the higher attributes of their race: and quite as subject as others to the insidious approaches of temptation, when not nerved up to a performance of a high duty.

The peculiar form of government, under which we have for many years been living – call it by what name we may, whether a democracy or a republic – has been well calculated to demoralize, to some extent, the native, high character of the South, and to vitiate its progress in statesmanship. There has been too much individual freedom, license rather, conferred upon the masses, through the agency of which fact, the lighter and less worthy material of society has floated to the surface. Men of actual merit, who are generally less adapted to popular approbation, have been compelled to come with their opinions and claims before the same volatile tribunal, with the worthless and flippant demagogue; and they, too, as far as was possible for them to do so, have been compelled to resort to the same vitiated means of success.”

The Southern idea was to cast off the burden of liberal democracy.

Instead of a source of “progress,” liberal democracy was thought to be demoralizing and vitiating the high character of the South. It was filling our high offices with “the lighter and less worthy material of society” instead of men of actual merit. There was too much individual freedom which was degrading the character of our people at the middle and bottom ranks of society.

George Fitzhugh believed the nature of “free society” is a perpetual state of social revolution. The abstract ideals of “liberty” and “equality” undermine the social order by generating new “-isms” which tear apart the social fabric. The radical individualism of liberalism leads to atomization, alienation and economic exploitation which generates utopian movements like communism.

Seen in this light, “American conservatism” is a ridiculous project. It “conserves” nothing and always loses ground to the Left precisely because the principles of classical liberalism are destructive to our culture. As Thomas Carlyle pointed out, it is like a virus in that it weakens the social order to the point where organized mobs can push the system in a moral egalitarian direction. For two centuries, the course of liberal democracy in every nation it has been tried has been leftwards.

The Alt-Right is rediscovering many of these same truths. This has all happened before. Most people who identify with the Alt-Right are unaware of their forerunners. Antebellum Southerners produced a vast body of work which has been neglected for over 150 years now.

About Hunter Wallace 12387 Articles
Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Occidental Dissent


  1. The Left is just giving the conservatives the Enlightenment good and hard.

    There is no proof of human equality, and those on the Left who screech about it the loudest are the least likely to believe in any of it.

  2. From the French Revolution to the Killing Fields of Cambodia more human beings have been slaughtered in the name of Equality than for any other cause.

  3. It sounds as if the antebellum South would’ve been the ideal location for Plato’s Republic!

  4. But wait, the old South was more class than race-conscious and it was no meritocracy. Socrates would have found much to admire in Dixie, but would he have considered it an ideal society?

  5. I never thought of myself in this light : as a ‘Calhounist’.

    Yet, in pondering this article, I wonder how it is that any Southron Man could be anything but.

    Put me down for Calhoun.

  6. The main point is not addressed, The civil rights revolution did not end the race war. The success of the civil rights movement encouraged the left to continue the race war by stealth. The Jewish led cuckservatives had no intention to oppose the leftist plan to dispossess and subjugate whites.

  7. ““Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the government built upon it fell when the “storm came and the wind blew.”

    Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner- stone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth.”

    Amen. And Hallelujah! Preach it.

  8. James Owen
    JUNE 7, 2017 AT 12:26 PM
    Calhoun predicted and described BRA.


    John C. Calhoun was right but he was wrong in the way it would come to pass, that he did not foresee. The men of his generation lacked the understanding of the Jewish Menace. The first two men to graduate from West Point, one Simon Magruder Levy was a Jew. The Governor of Georgia David Emanuel in 1801, who briefly governed the state after Governor James Jackson resigned to serve in the US Senate, it was believed by many was of Jewish parentage. Jews were serving in Baltimore City government in the 1820’s, in the Florida Territorial Government in the 1830’s (David Levy Yulee) and as Florida Senator from 1845-1851 and 1855-1861. David Yulee’s cousin was the undisputed master of the Confederate Government by the end of the war Judah P Benjamin. While Yulee converted to Christianity, Benjamin did not, and thanks to him and his ilk the Confederate Constitution was left with the Freemasonic Generic God in the Preamble. This ill omen was noticed by none other than Stonewall Jackson who once said if the South didn’t fight under the banner of Jesus Christ, it would lose the war,

    The aftermath of the war, if we look at it purely from a historical standpoint was a resounding defeat for abolitionism FOR A TIME. Most of the rabid abolitionists were either dead or voted out of Congress in 1874. United States v. Cruikshank in 1876 and United States v Reese which were both decided on March 27 1876 both affirmed the South’s right to govern herself. What happened between 1876 and 1948 to change all this was the crooked bastard Southern Politicians and crooked Southern farmers and oilmen in Texas Florida and elsewhere began to put personal gain ahead of the good of the people. The South began after the victory of 1876 to become disunited every state out for themselves. As the Progressives began to gain power in the 1890’s Southern Democrats endorsed them because a Progressive who stood for Jim Crow was still a good old boy. While it was true in theory that the Progressives did respect Jim Crow, the Progressive was ANTI-CHRISTIAN and ANTI-COMMON FOLK/POPULISM. The Progressives wanted (((ENLIGHTENED GOVERNANCE))), this was a code word for Jewish control. When the case Buchanan v Warley banned civil governments from designating housing areas for Negroes, three Justices appointed by the (((SOUTHERN))) Progressive Woodrow Wilson sat on the court, One of the judges was a Southern Segregationist and he voted AGAINST legal housing segregation, it was a unanimous court decision. This case was the only Civil Rights Case brought between 1876 and the New Deal that actually sided with Negroes.

    The shift began as the Jews grew in political power. By 1900 the Jews owned Baltimore and most all of the Northern Cities. Unlike in the South where the Merchant was scattered to the four winds, in Baltimore and the other cities, they lived in large Jewish quarters and owned entire sections of the citys real estate and elected and sat on the city councils. This inordiante power grew with every generation and by the 1930’s was so great they actually FORCED Alabama to exonerate the Scottsboro Boys in two separate US Supreme Court Cases, all brought by Jewish members of the Communist Party. From Scottsboro, all Civil Rights Cases were tried almost pro bono by JEWISH Lawyers usually before JEWISH Judges with the support of the JEWISH Media and the JEWISH Politicians. The Jews paid off the State of Tennessee to keep the Highlander Folk School in Monteagle TN open for THIRTY YEARS meanwhile Alabama and Georgia launched constant complaints. A Southern State allowed a Communist training school to operate for thirty years WHY? Tennessee at this time had no Yankee in-migration whatsoever, that didnt hit until the late 1970’s. JEWISH MONEY and Greedy Politicians.

    The South’s problems since 1876 are largely self-inflicted by ugly political corruption and a refusal to speak as one united voice. Worth noting that while Alabama and Mississippi fought the entire force of the Federal Government, every other state of the Old Confederacy pretty much did nothing to help. The reason Civil Rights Violence is still talked about today was because it was RARE in most places. People lost the will to fight over the long period of slow domestication and political corruption that took place between 1876 and 1948. This left the South a sitting duck.
    II Chronicles 7:14 tells the tale. The society became tolerant and she lost her crown.

    Worth noting that the informal segregation as practiced in crooked Northern Cities only collapsed under Jewish Pressure and Jewish Real Estate practices. The last major riot over integration was in Boston in 1974

  9. Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to Bishop James Madison praising the Jewish Demon and ex-Jesuit Adam Weishaupt the master of the Bavarian Illuminati

    I have lately by accident got a sight of a single volume, (the 3d.) of the Abbé Barruel’s ‘Antisocial conspiracy,’ which gives me the first idea I have ever had of what is meant by the Illuminatism, against which ‘illuminati Morse’ as he is now called, and his ecclesiastical & monarchical associates have been making such a hue & cry. Barruel’s own parts of the book are perfectly the ravings of a Bedlamite. but he quotes largely from Adam Weishaupt whom he considers as the founder of what he calls the order. as you may not have had an opportunity of forming a judgment of this cry of ‘mad dog’ which has been raised against his doctrines, I will give you the idea I have formed from only an hour’s reading of Barruel’s quotations from him which you may be sure are not the most favourable. Weishaupt seems to be an enthusiastic Philanthropist. he is among those (as you know the excellent Price and Priestly also are) who believe in the indefinite perfectibility of man. he thinks he may in time be rendered so perfect that he will be able to govern himself in every circumstance so as to injure none, to do all the good he can, to leave government no occasion to exercise their powers over him, & of course to render political government useless. this, you know is Godwin’s doctrine, and this is what Robinson, Barruel & Morse have called a conspiracy against all government. Weishaupt believes that to promote this perfection of the human character was the object of Jesus Christ. that his intention was simply to reinstate natural religion, & by diffusing the light of his morality, to teach us to govern ourselves. his precepts are the love of god & love of our neighbor. and by teaching innocence of conduct, he expected to place men in their natural state of liberty & equality. he says, no one ever laid a surer foundation for liberty than our grand master, Jesus of Nazareth. he believes the Freemasons were originally possessed of the true principles & object of Christianity, and have still preserved some of them by tradition, but much disfigured. the means he proposes to effect this improvement of human nature are ‘to enlighten men, to correct their morals & inspire them with benevolence. secure of our success, sais he, we abstain from violent commotions. to have foreseen the happiness of posterity & to have prepared it by irreproacheable means, suffices for our felicity. this tranquility of our consciences is not troubled by the reproach of aiming at the ruin or overthrow of states or thrones.’ as Weishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot & priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. he proposed therefore to lead the Freemasons to adopt this object, and to make the objects of their institution, the diffusion of science & virtue.


    The Young America Movement was an American political and cultural attitude in the mid-19th century. Inspired by European reform movements of the 1830s (such as Junges Deutschland, Young Italy and Young Hegelians), the American group was formed as a political organization in 1845 by Edwin de Leon and George Henry Evans. It advocated free trade, social reform, expansion southward into the territories, and support for republican, anti-aristocratic movements abroad. It became a faction in the Democratic Party in the 1850s. Senator Stephen A. Douglas promoted its nationalistic program in an unsuccessful effort to compromise sectional differences.

    John L. O’Sullivan described the general purpose of the Young America Movement in an 1837 editorial for the Democratic Review:

    All history is to be re-written; political science and the whole scope of all moral truth have to be considered and illustrated in the light of the democratic principle. All old subjects of thought and all new questions arising, connected more or less directly with human existence, have to be taken up again and re-examined.[1]

    Giuseppe Mazzini was it is believed appointed by Adam Weishaupt to become the new head of the Illuminati, in 1872 the crown was passed to former Confederate General Albert Pike, after which time its believed the movement largely faded into the background as by the 1890’s all of its ideas and programs were already HARD-WIRED into European and American Politics Academia Culture and the Freemasons propogated it all

    Both the Abolitionists and the Confederates were unwitting tools of the Illuminati as they had their men inside directing the action toward the eventual goal and keeping the borders open to make sure that it happened. Remember Thomas Jefferson gave us fully open borders in 1802 that remained largely that way until the 1880’s

  11. We Waz Huminz:

    This week had 2 blockbuster papers on human anthropology and genetics on top of a more famous article on the genetics of Ancient Egyptian genetics that showed that We Wuz Kangs was horse shit.

    The first:

    In it, 3 Bushmen and 4 Bantu skeletons ranging from 2000 to 500 years old were sequenced. The result was that the Bushmen diverged from the rest of humanity 260,000 by a brand new method of calculating these things, and by 330,000 years by the standard method. The oldest Y chromosome from the west coast of Africa diverged from the rest of Y chromosomes 330,000 years ago in a different study from Michael Hammer et al.

    The second:

    Just published, a new skull from Western Africa, north of the Sahara (Morroco), from Chris Stringer et al. dated at 315,000 years old. What they are trying to do with this one is admit that multi-regionalism is correct, but confine it to Africa, saying that different populations acquired various traits in all of Africa, and then at some point, one tribe put them all together and then moved “Out of Africa”.

    Well that’s horseshit too. Ask yourself if Homo erectus could conquer the planet, but the purportedly more advanced Homo sapiens was bottled up in Africa for 200,000 years. What were our ancestors doing all that time, twiddling their thumbs? All the evidence points to a Middle Eastern “hub” of Homo sapiens that radiated into Europe, Asia, and Africa, interbreeding with local cousins like Neanderthal, Denisovan and two or more as yet unnamed cousins (one for blacks, one for yellows) creating the human races that we are familiar with today. In far flung areas, such as Africa and some Pacific Islands, the replacement of “archaic humans” has not been completed yet.

    And remember this is what they are FORCED to admit; they have more evidence but don’t want to gut The Narrative completely which is why it is taking forever to get ancient Chinese genomes and genomes of major bones such as the Omo I skull. That the white awakening corresponded to the 2010 publication of the Neanderthal genome IS NOT A COINCIDENCE. We are motivated by what we believe to be ACTUALLY TRUE. We no longer believe that we are all one race, the human race. We KNOW that RACE IS REAL.

  12. Beware of false dichotomies – the curse of Western thought is binary thinking.

    Locke being wrong about certain things, or having failed to consider certain other things does not make these men right. Better we speak of a social contract – or of reciprocal obligations (even better if less catchy) – than we speak of society as an actual entity or of rights being privileges bestowed by the state (another fiction). The “state” does not exist except as a concept, and neither does “society.”

    The question for human societies is how to define both concepts and how to construct a society/state that respects both individual human beings, and the social aspect of humanity. Hyper-liberalism does not do that, but be careful waxing lyrical about landowning patricians, as your current-day masters are almost to a man/woman the products of privilege and inherited wealth, yet they have no loyalties whatsoever to the people of the “societies” which they govern.

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